Event Report: Moth Morning 17th June 2023

The prolonged period of dry mainly sunny weather ended with a tremendous downpour on the night and morning of our moth event on Saturday 17th of June. It didn’t stop the moths from thronging at the Heath and Robinsons Light traps on Kilberry Bog in south Kildare. The richness of the habitats, especially flower-rich wet grassland and native woodland, the warmth (15 Celsius at 4:30 am on Saturday), and the lure of the light traps brought great abundance and variety.

Poplar Grey. This moth breeds on Poplars (Populus).Photo Philip Strickland.

We had an outdoor shelter in which to examine the contents of the traps which were opened from 7:15 am. The range of colour, body and wing shape of these largely unfamiliar nocturnal ‘butterflies’ (moths and butterflies are members of the same invertebrate order, all are lepidopterans) are wonders in themselves.

Poplar Hawkmoth, female. This large moth is widespread in Ireland and Britain. It particularly favours using willows for breeding. Photo J. Harding.

The rain poured unrelentingly as if to mock the dry, sunny weather we have enjoyed since the 8th of May. This was the first time this year that I have seen several species in abundance. It highlights just how crucial our peatlands are for biodiversity.

We found about 160 species in the traps. The large, dramatic moths drew the most attention initially; the robust weirdly shaped Poplar Hawkmoths, the subtly spectacular Elephant Hawkmoths (named for their larvae’s elephantine appearance), the startling eye-flashing pose struck by alarmed Eyed Hawkmoths, and the bizarrely accurate cigarette butt/broken birch twig imitation intimated by the Buff-tip.

Eyed Hawkmoth, male. Photo J. Harding.

The names of our moths, often by Victorian Anglican clergy are often nicely descriptive and occasionally comparative. The White Ermine makes sense; the moth is snow white or pale cream with black spots or ovals, closely resembling black-spotted white fur worn by royalty. The Buff Ermine moth, similar-sized, and similarly shaped, is buff in colour, sometimes deeper yellow, but lacks the extent of spotting found in its white relative.

The Lilac Beauty lives up to its name. The crimpled forewing adds interest and variety to its outline. Photo J. Harding

Bright-line Brown-eye and Brown-line Bright-eye (the latter not seen but good tongue-twisters) are species whose appearance matches their names. Some have names that don’t complement their looks. Mottled and Willow Beauty moths are not beautiful but rather dowdy. Squinting at the lower crossline on the forewing upperside is needed to separate them. However, both possess nicely scalloped wing outlines and blend well on bark and rock.

Clouded Border is another aptly named moth. The spotting on this specimen is not often seen but was noted on several examples in Kilberry. The larvae feed on sallow (Salix) and poplars (Populus), especially aspen (Populus tremula). Photo J. Harding

Cinnabars were found in all the traps, and we even found larvae on ragwort near a trap; this smartly dressed species, named for its red markings which refer to mercury sulfide, remains a widespread moth. Eye-catching, especially in flight, it is rarely accosted by birds because they dislike the taste. It is attacked occasionally but birds that do learn not to repeat their assault.

Celypha cespitana is a very local micro-moth found on limestone and sand dunes. There is enough calcareous substrate in the Kilberry Bog area to support its foodplants. Photo Philip Strickland.

More eye-catching species are the emeralds, named for being emerald! The Large Emerald, Common Emerald, Light Emerald Grass Emerald, and Little Emerald were all marked present. The presence of their breeding plants accounts for this; abundant birch, Alder, gorse, and heather exist in the Kilberry area.

Waved Carpet, a scarce moth in Ireland and Britain. It flies in June and July, and the larvae feed on the young leaves of several trees, including Common Alder (Alnus glutinosa), birch (Betula), and sallow (Salix). Photo Philip Strickland.

One of the rare moths we found is Waved Carpet. It is strangely rare because it breeds on birch, a very common tree on bogs. We counted four Waved Carpets, the highest number I have ever known in a trapping session in Ireland.  Many moths we found are not necessarily rare but are localized, confined to certain habitats. Pebble Hook-tip, which again looks like its name, is one such. It occurs in wooded areas with birch scrub. Another notable moth we found is Bordered Sallow, better known in the Burren and limestone areas than in bogs.

Bordered Sallow. Photo Philip Strickland.
Pebble Hook-tip. It looks better adapted when settled on a birch trunk. J. Harding

The excitement of seeing so many moths and so many species is one of the greatest experiences for any nature lover. It is often bewildering because there are so many. But it offers the prospect of a journey of discovery, of stepping into another dimension, the realm of the night.

Be brave, step into the darkness. Great discoveries await…

A special thanks to our host, Mary Broughall, who made us more than welcome and served delicious refreshments after our time outside. Thanks also to Philip Strickland who led the event and Chris McKenna who set up the traps. Thanks to all who attended-this was not a morning for those with an aversion to rain!

Early Thorn, second generation. The first brood flies from March to May. Its larvae feed on various trees. Photo J. Harding




June Butterflies and Moths

The Transparent Burnet moth occurs in the Burren in County Clare and Galway and on limestone habitats in Mayo and Limerick. The caterpillars feed on thyme in spring. The Transparent Burnet in the west of Ireland is subspecies sabulosa. This form has deeper red than is found on subspecies found in Britain. It flies in June and July, and large numbers can be seen feeding together on mats of flowering thyme. A good place to see it is Coolorta, County Clare, at R 34240 96588.
Narrow-bordered Five-spot Burnet moths are found in flower-rich, often damp grasslands where they can be abundant. It has been recorded more widely in recent years but is rated vulnerable on the moth red list. Like the Transparent Burnet, it overwinters as a caterpillar and pupates in May and June. The adult flies in June and July. The moth occurs here as subspecies insularis. It breeds on Meadow Vetchling, A good site for it is Pollardstown Fen, at N 76388 15994.
The Six-spot Burnet is similar in appearance to the previous species but has six spots, not five, is far more abundant and widespread, and is especially abundant along the coasts. It has a much longer flight period, flying throughout the summer months. It often occurs in stunning abundance on sand dunes around Ireland’s coastline where dozens can be seen on a single Common Ragwort. It breeds mainly on Common Bird’s-foot-trefoil. One good area for it is the Dingle peninsula, such as at Stradbally, at Q 58707 13406.
The Cinnabar is a striking moth, and unlike the previous three species, it is mainly nocturnal. It flies in May and June. Although it is striking when seen in flight in bright sunshine, it is probably better known for the larvae which feed socially on Common Ragwort and related plants, their black and yellow hoops making them unmistakable. This is the best distributed of the black and red moths, occurring along the coasts, on dry ground wherever the foodplants occur.
The Brown Silver-lines can be seen during bright sunshine where Bracken exists. Large abundance exists where beds of Bracken occur. It is nocturnal, but like the Cinnabar, it is often disturbed in daylight. This moth is well distributed in Ireland.
The Small Heath is a grassland butterfly that was once very common. Distribution maps from the Millenium Atlas show it to be mainly coastal but with many inland sites but these are scattered, but it may have been under-recorded at the time. There is a strong possibility that it has declined since, with greater intensification in farming eliminating it by changing the grassland habitat it needs. It is very vulnerable to fertilizer use, re-seeding of grassland, and over-grazing. It appears to like ungrazed grasslands but it will disappear from such areas when scrub becomes established and the grass is shaded. This butterfly is still well represented on coastal grasslands. A good place to see it is Mornington, County Meath at O 15737 75513. It flies in May, June, July and August, in one generation.
The Meadow Brown occurs throughout Ireland in semi-natural grassland where it even manages to survive fertilizer use, but it exists on such sites in lower numbers. It flies from June to August and occasionally later especially in the west of Ireland. It is exceptionally abundant in some grasslands even on farms.
The Cryptic Wood White is well established throughout Ireland excepting areas of hot, dry, exposed carboniferous limestone where it is replaced by the Wood White. The Cryptic Wood White flies mainly in May and June and breeds on Meadow Vetchling and Common Bird’s-foot-trefoil and presumably related plants. ‘Unkempt’ scrubby grasslands, well-vegetated field margins, wood edges, lanes, wilder gardens in rural areas, and cutover bogs vegetated with grassland vegetation are places to look for this dainty, extremely interesting little butterfly.
A Small Tortoiseshell on Rough Hawk-bit, Lullymore, Co. Kildare. This is flying now, especially around nettles where it is busy breeding to lay down a second generation that flies mainly in late August and throughout September when it visits gardens to feed on flowers before overwintering as an adult, often in your house. This attractive, swift-flying butterfly occurs throughout Ireland.


Event Report: Outing to Portrane Burrow June 10th 2023: A case of the Blues

The prolonged period of dry weather which has extended over five weeks, appeared to be about to end just as our Portrane outing was due. Fortunately, the weather at Portrane was dry and mild, with bright conditions and some hazy sunshine.

We assembled and made our way to the dunes at the northern extremity of Portrane Burrow. At this point, some explanation is needed. Over the past 15 years, the dunes in the area were eroded by the sea until only the dunes at the northern end, immediately south of the estuary, remain. Last winter, these were inundated, but not removed.

The vegetation remains mainly in place but the condition of the habitat appears less favourable. Re-growth of the recently uprooted Sea Buckthorn was noted. Non-native plants like Cordyline (New Zealand) and Red Valerian (Mediterranean region) have appeared too. Some areas appear to have lost some habitat for the Small Blue and Small Heath.

Small Blue laying her egg on Kidney Vetch in Portrane. Photo J. Harding

Drought is beginning to affect the condition of the Small Blue breeding plant, Kidney Vetch.

The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services has identified five direct drivers of biodiversity loss. These are changing use of the sea and land, direct exploitation of organisms, climate change, pollution and invasive non-native species. The two indirect drivers are people’s disconnect with nature and the resulting lack of value placed on the importance of nature.

Looking at the direct influences on biodiversity loss, the latter three, climate change (coastal erosion removing the dunes), pollution (burning, dumping waste,) and invasive non-native species (a range of species, especially Sea Buckthorn) are at play in Portrane which also holds breeding populations of birds of conservation concern: Little Tern, Ringed Plover, Eurasian Skylark, and Meadow Pipit. As for human disconnect and disinterest…

During our outing, we counted 24 Small Blues (ranked endangered), 8 Common Blues, and 12 Small Heaths (ranked near threatened).

To put this in context, on 7th June 2018 John Lovatt, (who led this event) counted 439 Small Blues, 204 Common Blues, and 33 Small Heaths.

Of course, populations are not the same every year, so let’s look at the 2nd of June  2020. That day, John recorded 232 Small Blues, 82 Common Blues, and 23 Small Heaths.

On the 7th of June 2022, John recorded 85 Small Blues and 34 Common Blues. These declines mirror the loss of habitat and the reduction in the quality of the area remaining.

While the precise causes of Portrane’s decline in habitat size and quality are not universally applicable, the signs are ominous for Ireland’s butterflies and habitats. Portrane is on the front line and tells us to change our attitude before we are left with nothing.

Dune habitat with invasive, non-native Sea Buckthorn encroaching on Kidney Vetch. Photo J. Harding

Thanks to John Lovatt for leading the event.

Event Report: Biodiversity Week Walk on Lullybeg Reserve

Saturday 27th May 2023 was a beautiful sunny morning and although cloud built later conditions remained bright and pleasant with good breaks in the cloud and warm spring sunshine. This weather allows for comfortable walking and great close views of butterflies and day-flying moths which can be unapproachable in hot weather and impossible to find when it is cold. In short, conditions were perfect for Butterfly Conservation Ireland’s walk on Lullybeg Reserve.

White butterflies, like this Small White, brighten our days with their glowing brightness.

We began our walk along the track leading to the Irish Peatland Conservation Council’s reserve at Lullymore, and walked through various habitats, such as wet grassland, poor fen, scrub, woodland, wet heath, and onto Lullybeg Reserve which continues the habitat diversity, especially wet grassland, elements of dry meadow, poor fen, marsh, wet and dry heath. This habitat richness means that a biodiverse fauna is expected, and we observed plenty of examples of this richness.

This Common Blue beautified the start of our walk.

Drier areas showed good displays of Common Bird’s-foot-trefoil, a magnet for Burnet Companion moths, Narrow-bordered Bee Hawkmoths, Common Blues, and Dingy Skippers. This plant produces a ‘trefoil lawn’ at the base of the track opposite the reserve at Lullymore and near the silt pond on Lullybeg Reserve, and we stopped and spent plenty of time at both locations, seeing abundance and diversity. An especially lovely ‘blue’ female Common Blue loitered at the first patch of trefoil in Lullymore and we managed some great photographs of her; she posed nicely during the bright spells before becoming more active during direct sunshine. Many female Common Blues are chiefly brown on their upper surfaces, so seeing a blue individual is a treat. This blue suffusion usually features more prominently the further west you look, with more easterly areas having smaller, browner females.

The male is bright, shining blue wherever one looks for him, and these looked dazzling in the sunshine.

This Narrow-bordered Bee Hawkmoth was ambushed by Misumena vatia, a crab spider that lurks on same-coloured flowers.

We checked the buckthorn bushes in the track connecting Lullymore and Lullybeg, seeing Brimstone eggs and half-grown larvae. Brimstones are good at breeding over an extended period, laying eggs from March into June. This results in adults emerging over at least two months giving the impression that it is on the wing most of the summer.

This is somewhat illusory. Individual newly hatched Brimstones spend little time on the wing during the summer; they hatch in summer, feed for a short time on flower nectar and disappear until the following March. Hatching over many weeks means it appears to be flying for several weeks, but no butterfly that needs to survive the winter as an adult can afford to take the risk that prolonged activity brings. That explains the seeming anomaly of seeing more in late March after winter than were counted the previous summer.  This brief summer fling also accounts for the excellent condition of the over-wintered Brimstone in March, when it is already around eight months old! After checking the Brimstone caterpillars, Emperor Moth caterpillars were found on Meadowsweet, one of several plant species it uses in the area.

A half-grown Brimstone caterpillar on Alder Buckthorn. Like many edible larvae, it has the same colour as the foodplant, showing adaptation to its host plant. This adaptation to leaf colour is continued in the pupa and adult butterfly. Despite this camouflage, it is likely that the larva is heavily predated by birds and wasps.

Lullybeg Reserve was awash with Marsh Fritillary butterflies, most looking perfectly fresh. Confusion reigned along the stream bank, with Burnet Companions jostling with Marsh Fritillaries for space and attention, with occasional skirmishes between Dingy Skippers and Burnet Companions. Altogether I counted 99 Marsh Fritillaries. I am sure number 100 was seen by one of us!

A perfect specimen, this male Marsh Fritillary probably emerged on the morning of our event.
Showing the sealed abdomen of a female Marsh Fritillary. The male seals her to prevent a second mating. Genetic succession is a step closer!

We reached the silt pond which has an adjoining luxuriance of Common Bird’s-foot-trefoil, a fuel station for passing traffic and resident butterflies and moths alike. Nuzzling its furry way among the fragrant yellow blooms was a rather bumbling Narrow-bordered Bee Hawkmoth. An astonishing bee mimic, it is rarely bothered by avian predators but even if pursued, it is formidably elusive in full flight.

The increasingly scarce Small Heath butterfly joined in; it shouldn’t be in trouble, but like so much of our butterfly fauna, it is dwindling in distribution. The abundance of butterflies, moths, dragonflies (high numbers of Hairy Dragonflies and Four-spotted Chasers), and other groups at Lullybeg give a glimpse of what the wider countryside looked like, 30 or more years ago. There’s plenty wrong, but Biodiversity Week gives us the opportunity to admire what we still have and inspires us to nurture and advocate for nature. And so does the support we receive from people with a shared passion for nature, like those whose company we had the pleasure to enjoy on Saturday. Some members travelled from Cork and Tipperary for the event, so it was wonderful that the reserve’s bounty was on show, thanks to the great weather.

Thanks to everyone who attended, to everyone who worked on the reserve over the winter, and to Kildare’s Heritage Officer Bridget Loughlin who organised the county’s biodiversity week events.

Nature needs a hand to survive, not neglect or the contempt implicit in the drive for profit. The Marsh Fritillary does well in species-rich grassland managed without chemicals and with gentle cattle grazing.

Photos J. Harding


Ones to watch in May

Here are five lovely butterflies to look for in May. See if you can find them and let us know about your record. See Butterfly Conservation Ireland’s Records Page  https://butterflyconservation.ie/wp/records/ for the details we need to report your sighting on Butterfly Conservation Ireland’s 2023 Record Page. The photographs below were taken in May 2023.

Marsh Fritillary underside. The upperside is shown below. This occurs on wild grasslands, often in wet or damp areas containing its breeding plant Devil’s-bit Scabious. This is the only legally protected insect that occurs in Ireland.

Dingy Skipper. This little butterfly is usually seen fluttering low over Common Bird’s-foot-trefoil. Areas of unfertilized grassland with some bare ground are the places it frequents.
The male Orange-tip is unmistakable. He is often encountered patrolling the sunlit side of a hedge. In the female, the orange band is replaced with white but both sexes show the lovely moss-coloured hindwing underside.
The Small Heath is just starting to emerge. Found on wild grassland in a number of habitats, from coastal grasslands to upland heaths, this formerly common butterfly is in retreat throughout much of Ireland’s farmed land.
This delicate little white butterfly is unspotted which separates it from all other white butterflies found in Ireland. The wood white exists in Ireland as two identical-looking species: the Wood White found on grassland among open scrub growing on exposed carboniferous limestone in Clare, Galway, and Mayo and the Cryptic Wood White which breeds on more open grassy sites with scattered scrub outside the areas occupied by its sister species.

All photos J. Harding


Event Report: Burren in Bloom Butterfly Walks May 13th and 14th

Record rainfall in March, an indifferent April and the cool first two weeks in May provided the inauspicious meteorological backdrop to our Burren outings. Vegetation growth, butterfly abundance and emergence times are influenced by sunlight, temperatures and precipitation so expectations were tempered, despite the excellent habitats that we planned to walk.

Our Day Out.

Happily, Saturday gave us excellent weather especially in the morning after the mist dissipated and up to mid-afternoon after which it clouded over.

Our large, enthusiastic group of Burrenbeo Trust and Butterfly Conservation Ireland members assembled at Crevagh to walk the green road through Clooncoose Valley. This road mainly runs east/west so it is open to sunlight for much of the day, and along much of its length it is sheltered by stone walls and scrub making it an attractive corridor for commuting butterflies. The broad roadside also contains resources such as basking platforms, nectar and larval foodplants, while these are also present, albeit in more exposed situations, in the adjoining landscape. In short, it’s perfect!

Clooncoose Valley, County Clare. J. Harding

And it is great for walkers too, with a fairly level surface and magnificent views. At the gate, I showed photographs of the butterflies we hoped to encounter and off we went, chatting and sharing observations and stories on our stroll.

A male Wood White soon fluttered into view, bobbing ponderously but purposefully over vetch-rich verges, seeking his mate. Previously netted and jarred Wood Whites were passed around, while the story of its place in the Burren was described. The delicate greenery on its hindwing underside distinguishes our Wood White from the examples found in Britain and Europe, with theirs showing grey undersides.  We spotted several more, all flying low or tasting nectar from wayside blooms. Ranked Vulnerable on the Irish red list, it felt reassuring to see it thriving here on The Burren’s Butterfly Road.

Wood White, a rarity headquartered in the Burren. The hindwing underside looks much greener when seen in the field. © J. Harding.

A companion species, in The Burren at least, is the even rarer Pearl-bordered Fritillary. This blue-eyed beauty is much sought after in Irish butterfly circles, with generations of butterfly lovers making the trek to Clooncoose to see it during the 100 years following its discovery in this area in June 1922. One dashed past, its deep orange uppersides drawing instant heed. One of our number netted the next commuter, another male. I jarred him to pass around, pointing out his blue eyes, deep orange upperside marked with velvety black chevrons, spots and lines, and his pearl-edged hindwing undersides. It is such a pleasure to see people’s reactions to a creature of immense beauty.

Pearl Bordered Fritillary on dandelion. Photo Geraldine Nee.

We released him and more appeared, and the green road became a catwalk with admiring photographers snapping basking, and feeding Pearl-bordered Fritillaries. All seen were males, all in perfect condition; the females were yet to emerge; this showed it was early in their flight season. This butterfly is highly dependent on weather conditions with emergence dates significantly influenced by prevailing temperatures. In warm springs, it hatches during April.

In a cool spring, this endangered butterfly will not be seen until May, and the lack of sightings at Fahee North the following day showed it to be significantly later than in several previous years, such as 2007 and 2009 when it was abundant during April.  According to data from UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, it has suffered a 72% abundance decline 1978-2019 and a deeply alarming 91% distribution decline 1982-2019. These are horrifying statistics. We don’t want to see this anywhere, but in Ireland the species is in the ‘Burren Only’ category so the Burren must continue to be treasured and managed according to its ecological need for open scrub on limestone.

The Pearl-bordered Fritillary is named for the seven pearls bordering the underside of the hindwing. J. Harding.

Another must-see was the Dingy Skipper, represented in the Burren by subspecies baynesi, a paler form than found elsewhere, neatly adapted to its limestone homeland. This active creature was soon apprehended and passed over for inspection. A specimen from Kildare was shown for highlight the contrast in the depth of colouring. The uniqueness of the Burren form of this spring skipper provides a further impetus towards conservation of this magnificent landscape.

Dingy Skipper, Clooncoose. J. Harding.
Speckled Yellow moth, Clooncoose. J. Harding

Green-veined White (the citral perfumed wings drew much interest) Small Copper (tiny but gorgeous), Red Admiral, Peacock, Speckled Wood were also viewed along with the butterfly-like Speckled Yellow moth, really abundant in Clooncoose. We were even treated to great views of an oblivious Red Fox, who couldn’t care less that he was under close observation.

Red Fox at Clooncoose. He was busy catching frogs in the grassy hollows between the limestone. J. Harding
Hairy Dragonfly itill(female) was very abundant on the Green Road at Clooncoose. J. Harding.
Mountain Avens, Clooncoose. J. Harding

The following day’s outing at Fahee North, near the Burren Perfumery involved a walk on a Marsh Fritillary breeding area on wet grassland and an adjoining area of scrub, limestone grassland and shattered limestone pavement. The weather was dry, with some sunshine but quite cool in a brisk westerly wind.

While butterflies kept their heads down during our outing, we did see great habitat that holds important populations. We saw a Marsh Fritillary caterpillar on a leaf of its foodplant, Devil’s-bit Scabious, and several Transparent Moth caterpillars on thyme growing on a well-developed ant hill. The Transparent Burnet is an attractive day-flyer, and very abundant in the Burren but rare elsewhere in Ireland.

Transparent Burnet caterpillar on thyme and adult below on Bloody Cranesbill.
J. Harding

We looked closely at the habitat and ecological needs of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary on the open scrub on the limestone adjoining the Marsh Fritillary breeding site, and why the continuum of habitat provided by a well-managed Burren is crucial to the long term survival of our rarest butterflies and moths.

Early Purple Orchid, in great abundance in the Burren this spring. J. Harding

It was a thoroughly enjoyable weekend, made special by the great company in the most special landscape Ireland has to offer.

Thanks to all who attended, especially to Pranjali from Burrenbeo Trust who helped to organize these events.

Malta: Teeming with butterflies in Spring

One of life’s annoyances is arriving back in Ireland after a break in a sunny clime to be told by a grinning neighbour, “The weather was amazing here when you were away. It only started to rain yesterday.”

Anticipating this scenario while in Malta, I checked the weather report and forecast for Ireland online on RTE Radio. Rain, wind, thunderstorms, flooding, etc, etc! No mention of sunshine! Just lots of the wet and windy stuff.

That morning I gazed through the window of the apartment in Għajnsielem, Għawdex (Gozo, nicknamed Il-Gżira tat-tliet għoljiet, the island of the three hills), at clear skies lit by the Mediterranean sun. The smug feeling that comes from knowing that I wouldn’t be on the receiving end of a meteorological putdown and that I was feeling that glorious Vitamin D delivering sunshine on my pale skin was delicious.

Maltese Stocks Matthiola incana subsp. melitensis. The bay is Daħlet Qorrot Bay, a small inlet nestled between the northern cliffs of Gozo not far from in-Nadur, Gozo’s largest village.

Gozo, also known by its residents as Għawdex is the second largest of the Maltese Islands, which are the sunniest in Europe with over 3000 hours of sunshine a year. The sun shines for about 300 days each year. The winter temperatures are benign, with highs of 16-18 Celsius on many days. The average annual temperature is about 23 Celsius. In Ireland, the average is 9.4 Celsius.  This is considerably lower than the average of 12.4 Celsius in Malta’s coolest month, February.

Temperatures in April this year (2023) reached around 23 Celsius, a comfortable heat. It rained once during my two-week stay. It gets hot later, with June to September regularly having temperatures in the 30s Celsius and sometimes higher. The highest temperature in 2022 was in August when 39.2 Celsius was recorded. Being surrounded by sea means the very extreme high temperatures seen on the European mainland are avoided. Rainfall is low compared with Ireland and occurs mostly during winter. Summer rain is very rare. The islands get about 600mm of precipitation per year, sometimes much less.

The inhabitants accommodate themselves to the high day-time summer temperatures by closing businesses from 11 am to 4 pm (typically). Heat can be troubling for those with an aversion to high temperatures so if that’s you, avoid visiting from June to September because you will not enjoy your stay. During these months, there is persistent heat, even at night.

Malta Opera House, Valetta. It was not rebuilt after it was destroyed by bombing on 7 April 1941. A Government survey in July 2021 found that most respondents, 56.3 per cent, said they wanted the theatre to be built to its original structure.

The islands are special for their history, culture, and extraordinary architecture. The main island’s buildings were largely reconstructed after World War II when the island was essentially flattened by Axis bombing; Field Marshal Kesselring told the German High Command that “There is nothing left to bomb.”(Holland,  2003). The formerly iconic opera house in the capital Valetta (named after the French nobleman Jean de la Valette, who is recalled in the city’s name for his incredible feat in defeating the Ottoman invasion of Malta in 1565, one of the greatest sieges ever fought in Europe) remains a bombed ruin, a memorial to the devastation wrought on the island, a major strategic target in the Mediterranean war theatre.

Jean De La Valette, Valetta. He was about 70 years old when he master-minded the resistance to the Ottoman assault. Much of the evidence for the events comes from a first-hand account written by Francisco Balbi Di Correggio, of Italian birth who wrote in Spanish and Italian. His account of the Siege, published in Spanish in 1568, has been translated into English. It is remarkably detailed and highlights the frightening ferocity of the conflict, which ended in defeat for Sultan Suleiman.

For me, the islands are of immense interest, some of them rooted in the personal, given my Maltese heritage. The islands’ biodiversity is a big draw. As with isolated islands, the biodiversity count is lower than it is on continental land masses, but some of the species have developed unique characteristics, probably by being geographically isolated for thousands of years.

There are, for example, several endemic species and subspecies (an endemic is a species or subspecies that is confined to a restricted area) as well as near-endemics present, adding interest. Its strategic importance during conflicts also applies to biodiversity; it remains strategically important as a migration stop-over for many birds and insects.

The most eye-catching butterfly is Papilio machaon melitensis, the unique endemic subspecies of the swallowtail butterfly that occurs only on the Maltese Islands. Large, elegant and powerful in flight, it is undeniably beautiful. The subspecies rank of this butterfly was established in a study carried out by the University of Munich in 1936. Karl Eller researched the species based on specimens caught in September (probably the third generation).

Eller concluded that the Maltese swallowtail has a very long forewing, that the broad dark band running along the submarginal area of the forewing is strongly wedge-shaped and that this band, continued on the hindwing, is very broad there where it almost merges with the red spot. He also noted the finely scaled veins on the hindwing upper surface and found the red flame markings on the hindwing underside to be prominent. Eller considered the swallowtails he found in Malta similar in appearance to those in Africa.

Swallowtail (male), east of Qala, Gozo. Females look similar and are usually larger.

Recently, Leraunt (2016) stated his belief that the swallowtail in Malta is in fact a different species of swallowtail, mainly found in North Africa and the Middle East: “Illustrations on the Internet of melitensis Eller from Malta convinced me that it is indeed P. saharae melitensis Eller, 1936, stat. rev.” This view that the Saharan Swallowtail occurs in Malta was challenged by Louis Cassar (2018) of the Institute of Earth Systems at the University of Malta:

Leraut does not provide convincing evidence based, for example, on morphometric analysis (the study of shape variation of organs and organisms and its covariation with other variables) or molecular characterization to substantiate his hypothesis.

Given Louis Cassar’s morphometric study of both species (all life stages), I concur with his view. Differences exist, for example, in the antennae, the size and shape of the red hindwing spot, overall size, the appearance and length of the pupal stage, egg size and larval colour and the length and colour of the osmeterium (this is an eversible forked organ concealed just behind the larva’s head that emits an unpleasant smell used to repel bird attacks). This does not mean that the Saharan Swallowtail never appears in Malta; given the nomadic habits of many swallowtails, it may occasionally migrate there from North Africa and from Lampedusa, an island about 150 km WSW of Malta where the Saharan Swallowtail was recently confirmed (Cassar et al. 2023).

Butterflies don’t care about their own taxonomic identity, but we must. Species confined to a small island group deserve study and may require protection and our appreciation as we marvel at the ability of nature to adapt to conditions that may differ significantly from those on a continent.

Maltese Wall Lizard Podaris filfolensis maltensis is very common in the Maltese Islands. It occurs in Malta as an endemic subspecies. The females are brown.

Certainly delightful, the swallowtail in the Maltese Islands appears to be successful, moving throughout the landscape and even island-hopping to seek mates and breeding sites. Netted with black veins and bands over yellow wings, the sharp blue hindwing band and flame-red spot and black tails spell sophistication. So does its behaviour. It flutters delicately above blooms while dipping its proboscis to suck nectar, then surges powerfully away, defying gravity and gale in its onward propulsion.

One of the loveliest sights is a primrose yellow swallowtail fluttering around red or purple Bougainvillea climbing on mellow yellow ochre Maltese walls.

This butterfly is oddly elusive. You can look for it for hours, be on the brink of admitting defeat and then see three at once, battling for possession of ground or pursuing a mate. The courtship is dramatic. The sexes flutter around each other before rocketing to an impressive height and then plummeting to pair on a low shrub. Territories are often held on a patch of ground containing larval foodplants and nectar sources.

Some of these are at altitude and may also function as hill-topping sites where territorial possession and mate-seeking may occur at the same time or transition to hill-topping behaviour. This is when some butterflies, especially males, fly for hours around an exposed elevated site, with little or even no clear or discernible purpose. Mates may be encountered at hill tops but in some species, this appears not to be the purpose; for example, Peacock butterflies that are in a breeding delay phase (diapause) have been seen hill-topping in the Burren.

Swallowtail larva on Fennel, Il-Majistraal, Malta.

The swallowtail in Malta breeds mainly on Fennel Foeniculum vulgare which occurs widely and is often abundant. Fennel is also a nectar source. Fringed Rue Ruta chalepensis is also used for breeding. According to online sources, the adult butterfly flies from late February until November. It passes the winter in the pupa.

When I visited in the last two weeks of April, the adults I saw were mainly very fresh specimens. I also found young caterpillars on Fennel. It is possible that I was seeing some second-generation butterflies by late April, but I am not sure. The larvae were, I presume, the offspring of the first generation and will be second-brood butterflies.

Clouded Yellow, Xlendi, Gozo.

There were many butterflies flying in April. Small White, Large White, Eastern Bath White and Clouded Yellow were busy feeding and breeding. I saw Small White laying eggs on Caper Capparis orientalis, a lovely low shrub with striking flowers, especially the violet stamens. The flower buds are edible for humans.

Three blues were busy: Lang’s Short-tailed Blue, the Long-tailed Blue and the Southern Blue, previously believed to be the Common Blue. The classic migrants, Red Admiral and Painted Lady, were out too; some of the latter were faded and tattered, and others were perfect specimens.

The Long-tailed Blue is common in Gozo and northern Malta.
The Southern Blue is very abundant during July. It occurs in smaller numbers in spring.

The Wall Brown butterfly was abundant and I even saw a female on the main street in the Gozo capital, Victoria (Rabat). In Malta, none of these species needs very special habitats; they just need larval foodplants and nectar sources. I saw one Meadow Brown, on 29th April, near the coast east of Qala village. He was freshly emerged and I was excited to see it. However, the sight of what was recently a common butterfly should not typically evoke animation, but its populations on the islands are parlous:

A somewhat rare resident species that has experienced a sharp population decline in the last decade or so. The species still maintains small, fragmented populations in a couple of localities, but current trends do not bode well. (Cassar 2018)

The Meadow Brown exists in Malta as an endemic subspecies, Maniola jurtina hyperhispulla. Its extinction would therefore be especially tragic. The decline of this and other butterflies (Small Copper, Small Heath, Speckled Wood) might be linked with pollution, climate change and habitat loss, all in evidence on the islands. Chemicals are heavily used in farming to extirpate insects. Even in unfarmed land, bird trappers use persistent herbicides to remove vegetation from trapping sites. In recent years, precipitation levels have declined significantly below the average. The unrelenting building frenzy is swallowing precious land especially in Malta but also in Gozo.

A girna, Qala, Malta. These corbelled huts were and are used for storage and probably for dwelling and resting places in the past. These can be centuries old, but it is very difficult to date these structures.

Three ‘new’ butterflies have arrived on the islands in recent years. These are the Geranium Bronze Cacyreus marshalli, Dark Grass Blue Zizeeria karsandra and Desert Babul Blue Azanus ubaldus. The first occurs naturally in South Africa and may have arrived on imported Pelargoniums while the latter two are species of hot, arid lands, essentially eremic (desert) species. The survival of these three in Malta points, possibly, to the warming, drier climate there, and must be concerning for the habitats and native species currently supported.

Large Star of Bethlehem, Il-Majistral, Malta.

All is not gloom. Maltese people are beginning to take their environment’s needs into account. A nature park covering 2.5 sq. km, Il-Majistral, was established in 2007 in the north of Malta. Malta has also declared protected areas covering about 29% of the land area and 35% of marine waters. No more bird-trapping licences are being issued, and shooting is less accepted now, but these activities continue. Some birds, like the Honey Buzzard and Marsh Harrier, are easy targets owing to their lazy, soaring flight. Further work will hopefully make shooting such species a thing of the past.

Crown Daisy Chrysanthemum coronarium (yellow) and French Honeysuckle Hedysarum coronarium, (red) Qala. The French Honeysuckle is often grown for fodder and for Honeybees.
Caper, Il-Majistral, Malta. This common plant is used for breeding by Large and Small White butterflies.

There is still much to see in the Maltese countryside, especially for a person from cooler climes unused to seeing the plant and insect life in the Mediterranean.

The friendliness and openness of Maltese people is a tonic too. A welcome is rarely if ever withheld. There is a distinctive culture. Signs of the religious culture are evident everywhere with churches in every village. Crucifixes hang in public places from government buildings to insurance offices. There is less restraint in speech, with a directness rarely heard elsewhere. The village is a key part of identity, and for many people the next village, a kilometre or two away, is considered a great distance to travel.

The church of St George, Victoria. Note the clock on the left shows the wrong time. This is to confuse the devil to ensure that he does not disrupt mass.

The squares are the centre of village life, and news travels fast. During the heat of summer, most social life occurs after dark, and the village squares come to life. Children chase one another around tables and street furniture and climb into niches in the baroque churches. Safe, friendly and memorable, you will certainly experience something different.

Ta’ Pinu, Gozo’s best-known church. It is located in a rural area without a parish and is an important shrine that receives thousands of visitors from Malta and elsewhere.

If there was only one thing I could change, it is the rampant construction of apartment blocks, which I would like to see ended. After that, I would ban pesticides. But that applies to Ireland too, along with massive fertiliser inputs.

Without a better way of managing food production, the glories of our world will continue to diminish. Wherever you visit this summer, try to visit sites with high nature value. The message that nature matters might hit home the better.

The Sardinian Warbler breeds in Malta and can be seen bringing caterpillars to its nest during spring.
Southern Star of Bethlehem, Qala, Gozo.
Wall Brown, Il-Majistral, Malta.
Egyptian Grasshopper Anacridium aegyptium, Qala, Gozo.  This is a large insect and a capable flyer. Younger individuals are green, with mature specimens typically pale brown or grey.
Maltese Glow-worm Lampyris pallida is endemic to the Maltese islands. The adult female lights up to attract a male at night, usually during early summer. The larva, seen here, is more often seen, during the day. This one is feeding on a snail near Qala, Gozo.

Photos J. Harding


Cassar, L. F. (2018). A Revision of the Butterfly Fauna (Lepidoptera Rhopalocera) of the Maltese Islands Summary. Naturalista Sicily, S. IV, XLII (1), 3–19.

Climates To Travel World Climate Guide (2023). Available at: https://www.climatestotravel.com/climate/malta (Accessed 06 May 2023)

Holland, James (2003). Fortress Malta: An Island Under Siege, 1940–1943. London: Miramax Books.

Ireland’s Blue Book (2023). Available at: https://www.irelands-blue-book.ie/IrishWeather.html#:~:text=Temperature%3A,C%20(60.3%20%C2%B0F (Accessed 05 May 2023)

Papilio machaon subsp. melitensis Eller, 1936 in GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2023-05-06.

Weber, Hans and Kendzior, Bernd (2006). Flora of the Maltese Islands A Field Guide. Marburg: Margraf Publishers.


The shocking story of Butterfly Declines Across Europe

Because butterflies are so loved and well-studied, there is good evidence of what butterfly species occurred in Europe, Britain, and Ireland over the past 100 years and further back, and the species that have flourished, declined, were gained, and lost.

For many countries in Western and Central Europe, the story is certainly very worrying. The countries that border the Mediterranean and those in the far north of Europe have suffered less decline and loss, but these areas are not without challenges that affect butterfly populations.

Since the early years of the 20th century, England has lost the Mazarine Blue (possibly c.1903 but may have disappeared in c. 1865), Black-veined White (1923), Large Tortoiseshell (c.1950), Large Blue (1979), and Chequered Skipper (1975). The Large Copper was lost c. 1864, due entirely to habitat destruction.

Large Copper is a beautiful species that can be used to publicise the need for conservation practices. This butterfly was lost from England when the fens were drained. The upperside can be seen below. Photos J. Harding.

In the UK, the Duke of Burgundy, High Brown Fritillary, and Heath Fritillary are in serious trouble and the High Brown Fritillary, in very deep trouble, may be lost. Several other species are falling in abundance and distribution there, including the Marsh Fritillary, Pearl-bordered Fritillary, and Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary. Just to take the statistics for one butterfly, the Wood White. This elegant, dainty creature has fallen by 82% in its population and 76% in its distribution during the period 1979-2019.

Wood White, ranked near threatened in Ireland, relies on wooded habitat on carboniferous limestone that is being destroyed, especially in areas outside the Burren, such as around Lough Corrib, County Galway. J. Harding

You will see from the dates that butterfly declines and losses have been taking place in England for a long time. The situation is also very depressing in parts of central Europe. The northern Belgian province of Flanders has seen steep losses. 20 butterflies have become extinct (29% of its species list), and between 1992 and 2007 overall numbers declined by around 30%. A study published in the early 2000s found that 18 species (28% of its list) were threatened with extinction. In the Netherlands, 20% of species have become extinct, and since 1990 overall numbers in the country declined by 50%. Denmark and the Czech Republic are in the same sorry category of loss and decline suffered by Belgium and the Netherlands.

The Black-veined White is now extinct in the Netherlands.

Just to give an indication of how grave the situation in the Netherlands is, consider the fact that the Silver-washed Fritillary, thriving in Ireland and rising in abundance in England is in deep trouble there. The Dingy Skipper, holding steady in the UK and Ireland, is very rare in the Netherlands. The Marsh Fritillary is now extinct in the Netherlands.

The Silver-washed Fritillary thrives in Ireland’s woods especially where native trees exist.  This butterfly is in trouble in the Netherlands. Photo J. Harding

Countries in Europe were ranked in 2019 in the Journal of Insect Conservation according to their butterfly red lists where species are ranked under threat categories. There are five rankings, excluding countries that lack data.

The next group of countries is in a loss category below that occupied by Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, and the Czech Republic. These are Germany, Austria, Poland, Slovakia, Romania, and the UK.

Ireland is ranked in the next group of countries; we are mid-table for losses, along with countries such as Ukraine, Switzerland, Hungary and Finland.

The two countries that fare the best, with the lowest declines, are Spain and Italy.

Chris Van Swaay, one of Europe’s most eminent butterfly experts, explains the declines in the Netherlands.

“Before 1950 or so, grasslands in the Netherlands very much resembled what we now only have left in some nature reserves – they were wet, they had lots of flowers, were lightly grazed and mown only once or twice a year. This was very low-intensity farming.

“In two decades after the 1950s, the countryside was rebuilt – land was drained and planted with one species of grass, large amounts of fertiliser was put on the land, and it was mown six times a year. There is no room for butterflies except on road verges and nature reserves. The countryside is more or less empty.”

The reasons for the declines in Europe, Britain and Ireland are quite similar and often the same. Modern farming methods are the greatest causes of decline and loss. These methods have caused massive habitat loss and degradation with large areas of our land mass devoted to production of one crop species with no room for any other plant. In areas where this has not happened, traditional farming methods that maintained biodiversity have fallen out of use, creating successional changes that have lost us heathlands and grasslands, while the cessation of traditional woodland management has changed woodlands, resulting in closed canopies and darker woods unsuitable for many woodland species.

The loss of habitats for other reasons, such as building, afforestation, land drainage, and peat mining has also contributed to losses.

More recently, the concern is growing about the impact of chemical pollution, which can damage habitats that are not directly affected by changes in farming practices or habitat destruction. The deposition of nitrogen from the air is believed to be responsible for changing the character and chemical content of vegetation, making the habitat and foodplant unsuitable for butterflies. This is a sinister threat because it can affect populations that occur a long distance from industry and intensive farming. It is also difficult to address, requiring, probably, a geographical-scale response, not simply a local or national strategy to reduce air pollution.

Climate change is a further challenge; this is complex because some species are beneficiaries of a warming climate, while others suffer. Cold-adapted species are driven further north or uphill, and warmth-loving species are extending their range northwards. A mismatch between the development of vegetation and emergence or breeding times may be driving declines in some areas. For example, increasing dryness and heat in the Mediterranean region may deprive some species of nectar and foodplants. Extreme climate events associated with climate change can have dramatic and sudden impacts. The Green-veined White’s abundance in many areas of Ireland crashed in 2019 following the drought in 2018.

The Small Copper is under threat in some hot, dry areas in the Mediterranean, with increasing aridity meaning its food is becoming scarce or unavailable. Elsewhere, the chemical inputs being absorbed by its foodplants in intensively farmed grassland is poisoning its larvae. Photo J. Harding

How do we deal with the threats to our butterflies?

We need policies and actions that reverse the damage described above.

Greening our urban and suburban spaces by allowing vegetation to grow and planting native plants from local seed will help. Avoid tidiness; relax management in gardens, parks, verges, and the grounds of businesses. Do not use chemicals in these areas.

Reserves will not save butterflies unless they are large and managed. Many protected areas are too small and are often badly managed and being damaged. Landscapes must be protected, and these must contain a range of habitats. A good example of where this is done is the Burren in Counties Clare and Galway.

Pollution must be tackled. Massive chemical inputs in agriculture and reseeding grassland is destroying nature in general. Monoculture grasslands should be replaced with multi-species swards generated by allowing the seed bank in the soil to germinate. In areas where intensive farming is needed, ‘wild’ land must be incorporated into the landscape, typically as unfarmed extended field margins adjoining hedgerows and wood edges.

Woodlands containing native trees grown by allowing woods to extend naturally would add habitat diversity, as would maintaining wide rides allowing light in the woods. New woods must not be grown on high nature value semi-natural grassland, heaths, and bogs. New woods should be planted on intensively managed farmland. Scrub must be allowed to develop at the margins of woods rather than having a sharp edge where woodland transitions directly to open grassland.

Encourage a love of nature in everyone. Most focus is on youth education, naturally, but highlighting the intrinsic importance and wonder of nature should be promoted at all levels of the population. Participate in citizen science monitoring of butterfly populations to help to build knowledge of the status of butterfly populations. Getting involved in conservation organisations is important because these do important practical conservation, monitoring and education. These organisations help to influence policy in favour of caring for our environment.

Most of our countryside looks the way it does because it is heavily plied with chemicals. Fields of uniform, sharply green sward without flowers is not the ‘natural way.’ Fertilisers exclude flowers by promoting accelerated grass growth and in some cases, by providing a  chemistry that kills flowers. Herbicides kill any flowers that remain. There is certainly no need for our gardens, parks, and hedge margins to look like this. Make sure your patch doesn’t.


Maes, D., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M. et al. Integrating national Red Lists for prioritising conservation actions for European butterflies. J Insect Conserv 23, 301–330 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-019-00127-z

Warren, M.S., Maes, D., van Swaay, Chris A M, Goffart, P., Van Dyck, H., Bourn, N.A.D., Wynhoff, I., Hoare, D. & Ellis, S. 2021, “The decline of butterflies in Europe: Problems, significance, and possible solutions”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences – PNAS, vol. 118, no. 2.

Thomas, J. and Lewington, R. (2014) The Butterflies of Britain and Ireland. (Revised edition) British Wildlife Publishing, Dorset.








Butterfly Populations in Trouble Across Ireland and Britain

Last August we reported the latest information concerning the state of Ireland’s butterfly populations. The picture painted by the Irish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme data for 2020 and 2021 was not positive, with no species showing positive trends in 2021 with only two, the Brimstone and Peacock, showing a stable trend since 2008, the baseline year. The most recent data from the UK is now available. 

In this article, we present the overall data for the UK report, the data for some of the species found in both the UK and Ireland, and comment on the findings.

Key findings of “The State of the UK’s Butterflies 2022”

In the UK, long-term trends show that 80% of butterfly species have decreased in abundance (the number of butterflies) or distribution (the areas where butterflies occur), or both since the 1970s. By comparison, 56% of species increased in one or both trends. These findings are very similar to the headline results of the previous assessment in 2015. As then, the report finds that there are winners and losers but, on average, UK butterflies have lost 6% of their total abundance at monitored sites and 42% of their distribution over the period 1976-2019. Considering only the changes that assessors have most confidence in (those that are statistically significant), almost twice as many UK species have decreased in at least one measure than have increased: 61% have decreased and 32% increased.

Most habitat specialist species, (species restricted to particular habitats such as flower-rich grassland, heathland and woodland clearings), have declined dramatically in the UK. As a group, their abundance has decreased by over one-quarter (-27%) and their distribution by over two-thirds (-68%) since 1976 (1976 is the baseline year used for UK butterfly monitoring; in Ireland, it is 2008). Wider countryside species, butterflies that can breed in the farmed countryside and in urban areas, have fared less badly, although as a group they have decreased since 1976 (-17% in abundance and -8% in distribution).

Multi-species indicators provide an overall summary of changes in either abundance or distribution by combining species-level indices for groups of butterflies sharing particular attributes. The report authors constructed abundance and distribution indicators for all butterfly species (including the common migrants), and separately for resident species classified as habitat specialists or wider countryside species, at the UK level and for each of the UK countries, where there were sufficient data. Multi-species indicators for abundance and distribution were also produced for Butterfly Conservation’s Priority Species at the UK level.

Multi-species distribution indicators at UK and country levels were also constructed by combining occupancy indices in three ways: for all species, for habitat specialists and for wider countryside butterflies.

Long-term UK abundance trends

Analysing the standardised count data from the UKBMS generated long-term trends for 58 species. UKBMS is the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. It uses data gathered from transect walks, which uses the same methodology used by the Irish BMS in which recorders walk a fixed route (transect) in good weather each week from 1 April to 30 September and count every butterfly in an imaginary 5m box. Overall, more species decreased than increased in abundance: 30 species (52% of the total) had negative trends and 28 species (48%) positive trends. The statistical significance of trends provides a measure of the confidence that we should place in the changes they show. We can be much more certain that species with statistically significant trends have genuinely changed in abundance, irrespective of how large or small the change is. The UK long-term trends show that 19 species (33% of the total) have decreased significantly in abundance, 15 species (26%) have increased significantly and 24 species (41%) have non-significant trends. Only slightly more species decreased in abundance than increased at UKBMS-monitored sites. This represents a small improvement in the fortunes of UK butterflies compared to the previous assessment in 2015, when 36% of species with long-term abundance trends had decreased significantly and 23% had increased significantly.

Long-term UK Distribution Trends

Occupancy modelling of Butterflies for the New Millennium (BNM) species occurrence records was used to produce long-term UK distribution trends for 58 species. This method uses non-standardised recording, where recorders log any life cycle stage of any butterfly species, anywhere in the UK on any day of the year. This flexibility encourages large numbers of contributors leading to very widespread coverage of the UK landscape every year. This is the same system used by Butterfly Conservation Ireland’s recording scheme; see https://butterflyconservation.ie/wp/records/.

Overall, 43 species (74%) had negative distribution trends and 15 species (26%) positive trends. Far more species have decreased in distribution than have increased. The same pattern is found just for those species with statistically significant distribution trends: 30 species (52% of the total) had significant decreases in distribution, eight species (14%) significant increases and 20 species (34%) showed changes in distribution that were not statistically significant. Nearly four times as many species have decreased significantly in distribution as have increased. The occupancy modelling approach used differs from that in the 2015 assessment, so a direct comparison is less valid than for the abundance trends. However, fewer species show significant distribution trends (both decreases and increases) now compared to the 2015 report.

Combined Assessment (Abundance and Distribution)

Considering just the statistically significant trends, 36 species (61%) had decreased significantly in one or both trends and 19 species (32%) had increased significantly in one or both. Almost twice as many species had a significant negative trend in at least one measure than had a significant positive trend in one or both.

Although it remains widely distributed, mainly around the UK coastline, there is increasing concern about Grayling, which has suffered a severe long-term decline. Since 1976, the abundance of this species has decreased by 72% and its distribution by 92% at the UK level, and with major declines in both measures in England, Scotland and Wales. The data from Northern Ireland was insufficient to produce trends. These ongoing, rapid declines recently led to Grayling being upgraded from Vulnerable to Endangered on the GB Red List. Dependent on fine leaved grasses growing in sparse vegetation with much open ground or rock, the butterfly faces threats from habitat degradation due to ecological succession and nitrogen deposition, and from consequent small population size and increasing isolation.

The trends for Large Heath, another Priority Species, provide a positive picture, with a very large (407%) increase in abundance at monitored sites and little change in distribution (-2%) since the 1990s. Although present in all four UK countries, the remote location of most colonies means that few are monitored, and data are only sufficient to produce a UK-level abundance trend. Many of the monitored sites are managed for biodiversity and Large Heath populations have benefitted, for example from peatland restoration on lowland bogs in Scotland. However, there are concerns elsewhere in its range. For example, at some sites on the North York Moors and in Northumberland, there has been a substantial reduction in the amount of cottongrasses, the Large Heath’s larval foodplants, perhaps due to climate change. In many other areas, particularly in the uplands, data on how the butterfly and its habitats are faring are lacking.

Marsh Fritillary is the focus of conservation efforts in all four UK countries. Its distribution has decreased by 43% since 1985.

Marsh Fritillary underside, Kildare. © J. Harding.

The report then focussed on the individual countries in the UK.


In England Wood White has decreased by 82% in abundance (1979-2019) and by 77% in distribution (1992-2019), is classed as Endangered on the Red List and is a Priority Species for Butterfly Conservation. Most of the long-term abundance decline took place during the 1980s and recent signs are more positive, thanks to intensive conservation efforts in many parts of the Wood White’s range.

Northern Ireland

The multi-species indicators for Northern Ireland’s butterflies show decreases of 17% in abundance (2006- 2019) and 10% in distribution (1993-2019). However, only about half of the resident and regularly breeding butterfly species in Northern Ireland had sufficient data to calculate long-term trends up to 2019, so these indicators are not necessarily representative of all butterflies. In particular, habitat specialist species that are of conservation concern in Northern Ireland, such as Large Heath, Small Blue and Dingy Skipper do not, as yet, have sufficient monitoring coverage to produce trends. (The Small Blue and Dingy Skipper have highly restricted distribution in Northern Ireland, especially the Small Blue.)

The Wall butterfly has suffered a precipitous decline in Northern Ireland and appears to be on the verge of extinction. Formerly found in all six counties, a rapid decline since the 1990s reduced the species to the coastline of Co. Down, where there were only three records in the period 2015-2019. A single Wall was also seen in 2021, so the species is still clinging on. The cause is not known with any certainty, but the decline mirrors that experienced by Wall in England and Wales, where it is also among the most severely declining butterfly species, and in other parts of Europe.

Small Heath is another species, like Wall, which is associated with short, sparse turf, and which has undergone a rapid distribution decline (40% decrease 1995-2019) in Northern Ireland. Indeed, Small Heath has decreased significantly in all four UK countries. Loss and deterioration of habitat seem the most likely drivers of this decline, with factors such as climate change and nutrient pollution stimulating greater vegetation growth resulting in longer, denser swards even on sites managed for biodiversity. Small Heath caterpillars fail to survive on grasses when fertilizers are applied at the levels typically used in intensive agriculture, which suggests that the species may also be harmed away from farmland by smaller amounts of atmospheric nitrogen pollution.

Dingy Skipper declined by 15% in abundance and 35% in distribution 1976-2019.

Orange-tip declined by 26% in abundance and 1% in distribution 1976-2019.

Small Copper declined by 39% in abundance and 37% in distribution 1976-2019.

Small Tortoiseshell declined by 79% in abundance, but its distribution increased slightly up 0.2% 1976-2019.

Comma increased by 203% in abundance and 94% in distribution 1976-2019.

Silver-washed Fritillary increased by 284% in abundance and 1% in distribution 1976-2019.

A male Orange-tip rests during overcast weather. Have you seen one this year? Photo J. Harding

Regarding Cryptic Wood White Butterfly Conservation UK’s new analyses provide a more optimistic picture with nonsignificant trends suggesting an increase in abundance over the past decade and a stable distribution trend from 1993-2019. Unlike Wood White, which is mainly a woodland species in the UK, Cryptic Wood White uses more open habitats such as grasslands, and colonies are at risk from urban development and agricultural intensification. Other species that appear to be experiencing recent upturns in their fortunes, even if data are currently insufficient to demonstrate it quantitatively, include Dark Green Fritillary, Silver-washed Fritillary and Holly Blue. All three appear to be continuing to expand across Northern Ireland, where suitable habitats exist.


There are strong similarities in the population declines and increases seen in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Looking at the species that occur across these islands that are under pressure, most are species that occur on grassland. Grayling, Gatekeeper, Small Heath and Wall breed on grasses, which are almost certainly being affected by agriculture and industry adding nitrates to soils. This is being done directly, by the application of fertilisers and indirectly, by nitrates arising from farming, nylon manufacture and burning fossil fuels deposited from the atmosphere on soils, either in precipitation or as trace gases and particulate matter. There is good evidence that this is poisoning larvae feeding on nitrogen-enriched foodplants and cooling the temperature around the foodplant, which prevents or slows larval development. There is evidence that some non-grass feeders, like the Small Copper, which breeds on sorrels, are poisoned by fertiliser uptake by the foodplant.

The fact that declines are noted in areas where there is no agricultural activity suggests atmospheric pollution. There is very little farming activity along the Dublin coastline, and the Grayling and Wall are extremely rare on the coastal dunes where they used to be abundant and well distributed.

Quite concerning is the information from Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) that the largest amounts of wet deposition inputs of nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4+) (deposited from the atmosphere by rain and snow) are found in the uplands of Wales, northern England and western Scotland, away from industrial areas.

Nitrogen transformation and plant uptake of mineral nitrogen involve the production and consumption of protons and can, therefore, contribute to soil acidification. Where this occurs, plants that occur only or chiefly on alkaline soils, such as Kidney Vetch and Common Bird’s-foot-trefoil, may disappear, impacting on butterflies that breed on calcicoles (plants that need lime-rich soil), such as Small Blue and Common Blue.

There is also evidence that the poor recovery of sensitive species of Sphagnum moss in the southern Pennines (Lancashire and Yorkshire) is largely due to toxicity of ammonia NH4+ and nitrate NO3 deposition. Loss of moss and lichen species in Cumbria over the past 30-40 years may also be due to increased nitrogen deposition over that period. This has implications for the health of our bogs, and for the Large Heath which relies on peat bogs for its survival.

The loss of Marsh Fritillary populations in the UK appears to be due to loss of habitat. This is where habitat is simply removed by agricultural intensification such as ploughing and reseeding. Habitat loss is also taking place in Ireland, where land drainage, agricultural ‘improvement’ and afforestation is taking a toll, but natural succession, where scrub and woodland is developing on grassland no longer grazed, and on cutaway bogs where machinery disturbance has ceased and scrub develops, is also resulting in habitat loss.

There is some good news. The Small Tortoiseshell, its abundance in decline in the UK (-79%), appears less affected here. Between 2008 and 2021, it declined in abundance by 49%. A new enemy, Sturmia bella, a parasitoid fly that colonised Britain from the continent has affected Small Tortoiseshell populations. This fly has not been recorded here, but it is possible that Irish and British (but probably not Northern Irish) populations are being reduced in abundance by drought conditions that force the butterfly to enter hibernation in mid-summer and cancel a second generation typically seen in September.

Better news is the advance of the Silver-washed Fritillary, thriving in new woods developing on cutaway bogs and abandoned farmland. This handsome butterfly increased in abundance in the UK but has not notably risen in distribution there; it has, it appears, always been more widely distributed in Ireland.

The Comma is thriving in the UK. It is one of the outstanding successes there, and it is rapidly expanding its distribution here, having begun its colonisation of Ireland in the early 2000s. The Comma appears to be benefiting from the warming climate and may also be thriving on nitrogen-enriched Stinging Nettles, its main larval foodplant. We now know that it is double-brooded in Ireland, and this may be boosting its colonisation.

The Pearl-bordered Fritillary is named for the seven pearls bordering the underside of the hindwing. J. Harding

The story of the fate of our butterflies is a developing narrative, with diverging fortunes for the cast of characters that comprise our butterfly fauna. Unless we continue to monitor our populations, we will lose the thread of the plots, and may lose our focus altogether. Having some very rare species, like the elegant Pearl-bordered Fritillary, which occurs only in parts of the Burren, we need to maintain our monitoring and conservation focus. The UK has seen a decline of 64% in abundance and a disastrous 88% in the distribution 1979-2019.  A leading butterfly scientist, Professor Jeremy Thomas, commented in 2010: “Unbelievably for entomologists of my generation, the butterfly is extinct in Dorset, Kent and Somerset…reduced to single sites in Surrey and Gloucestershire.”  In Ireland, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary only occupies ten 10 km squares. We cannot such losses to happen here.



Fox R, Dennis EB, Purdy KM, Middlebrook I, Roy DB, Noble DG, Botham MS & Bourn NAD (2023) The State of the UK’s Butterflies 2022. Butterfly Conservation, Wareham, UK. Available at https://butterfly-conservation.org/sites/default/files/2023-01/State%20of%20UK%20Butterflies%202022%20Report.pdf

Harding, J. (2021) The Irish Butterfly Book. Privately published, Maynooth.

Judge, M and Lysaght, L. (2022), The Irish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme Newsletter, Issue 14.

Nash, D., Boyd, T. and Hardiman, D. (2012) Ireland’s Butterflies a review. Dublin Naturalists’ Field Club, Dublin.

Thomas, J. and Lewington, R. (2014) The Butterflies of Britain and Ireland. (Revised edition) British Wildlife Publishing, Dorset.








A Plastic World

Today’s Irish Examiner has a feature concerning the use of artificial lawns. The introduction followed by Butterfly Conservation Ireland’s contribution to the feature article is shown below.

The full article is available at


Plastic grass: Low-maintenance fuss-free greenery — or a menace to the environment?

CAROLINE DELANEY examines the backlash against synthetic lawns, and asks environmental experts for their observations
Plastic grass: Low-maintenance fuss-free greenery — or a menace to the environment?
The idea of durable low-maintenance fake grass is attractive but environmentalists say it is not as fuss-free as we may believe — and it has several drawbacks that ought to be considered before we invest in it.

It’s sold as low-maintenance, fuss-free and durable. And artificial grass is definitely gaining a foothold here. There are dozens of plastic grass specialists across the country offering ‘instant lawns’ to playschools, cafés, hotels, and homeowners. Then, there’s the DIY option with retailers such as Co-Op Superstores, Homestore & More, and Woodies — and even carpet outlets — offering grass tiles or rolls of artificial grass which can be laid in a manner similar to carpet.


Check out our Sustainability and Climate Change Hub where you will find the latest news, features, opinions and analysis on this topic from across the various Irish Examiner topic desks and their team of specialist writers and columnists.

But when we have an official biodiversity emergency as noted by the Dáil in 2019 and the Citizens’ Assembly on Biodiversity Loss in 2022, and when there is a commitment in the Programme for Government to tackle the climate and biodiversity crises, is there still a place for artificial grass?

Bloom controversy

Artificial grass has been banned from Chelsea Flower Show but, controversially, showed up in displays at Bloom here in Ireland last year. However, this year there will be no plastic grass at Ireland’s largest garden festival which this year takes place from June 1 to 5.

A Bord Bia spokesperson confirmed: “Bord Bia Bloom actively discourages the use of artificial grass in any on-site activation from sponsors on-site, and there are no artificial grass providers registered to exhibit at this year’s event.”

The garden designers at Bloom are also unlikely to use plastic grass this year, the spokesperson said: “Bord Bia Bloom actively encourages show garden designers to use natural materials where possible.”

Referring to last year’s festival when some visitors and environmental experts said they were disappointed to see plastic grass on display, the spokesperson said: “There are some instances, such as at last year’s event where an exhibitor requested that a very small section of an accessible garden feature artificial grass as natural grass would not have supported the weight of a mechanised wheelchair. However, we strongly recommend to all of our designers that they incorporate natural, sustainably produced plants and grass in their gardens.”

This follows moves in recent years to ban artificial turf from the Chelsea Flower Show which this year runs from May 23-27, and other events run by the Royal Horticultural Society. The RHS, Britain’s leading gardening charity, said no fake grass would be allowed because of its damaging effect on the environment.

What the experts say

Overwhelmingly, experts in biodiversity and environment are calling to ban the use of plastic grass, or put prohibitive tax on it.

Jesmond Harding

The installation of artificial lawns and shrubbery offers convenience but nothing else. The materials used contribute to pollution and the finished product offers nothing but damage to biodiversity. Synthetic plants are made from petroleum and fossil fuels used in their manufacture generate pollution that damages soils, plants, insects, birds, and mammals. Visually, the effect is ugly, and reflects a lack of care for the natural environment. It highlights the disconnect from nature and the idea that natural surroundings are inconvenient rather than a source of wonder and pleasure. I have observed an increase in the use of artificial lawns and plastic shrubs in tubs, and my reaction is to ask why. What is the appeal?

Jesmond Harding is the author of The Irish Butterfly Book.
Jesmond Harding is the author of The Irish Butterfly Book.

Artificial plants look tasteless and cheap. Even those that appear lifelike show an unvarying flat, empty gleam. Sanitising one’s surroundings might be a motivation. Bizarrely, the use of artificial lawns is promoted as a response to climate change, as these do not need watering during drought. The irony of promoting materials that produce climate-warming gases as a solution is exasperating and perverse, an offence to common sense.

There has been an incremental advance in the appearance of synthetic plants. We used to see artificial house plants, such as lilies for indoor vases, progressing to potted shrubs and now to outdoor shrubs and lawns.

On one journey through a local housing estate, I counted the number of hard surfaces replacing grassed gardens, which proved to be two-thirds of the outdoor spaces observed. This trend appears to be influencing new housing developments, with hard-surfaced front gardens or with no front-of-house space, just adjoining on-street parking slots.

There are studies that show links between the decline in butterfly species and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, some of this caused by burning fossil fuels to make artificial plants.

There is no pressure to produce food crops in gardens, so there is no need to apply nitrogen fertilisers which create nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that has 300 times the heating power of carbon dioxide. Gardens can be a haven for species fleeing the onslaught of chemically-mediated farming, but only if we grow native grasses, flowers, shrubs and trees in our gardens.

Butterfly Conservation Ireland has found that about half of our butterfly species visit butterfly-friendly gardens, and around one-third of our butterflies breed in gardens containing the right plants and conditions.

A plastic garden has no appeal for our wildlife.

The convenience argument for artificial grass can be answered by using low-maintenance alternatives such as pea gravel sown with drought-tolerant native plants such as kidney vetch, bloody cranesbill and Common Bird’s-foot- trefoil — all great for pollinators and providing a long flowering period giving colour and texture from May to October. There is no such thing as effortless management.

The Irish Butterfly Book: A Complete Guide to the Butterflies of Ireland by JM Harding.
The Irish Butterfly Book: A Complete Guide to the Butterflies of Ireland by JM Harding.

While spot weeding is needed in a gravelled garden, it is also a requirement in artificial turf, where weeds will appear, despite the promise of maintenance-free convenience.

I would like to see the use of artificial plants banned or at the very least subject to high taxation to take account of the environmental damage involved in the production and use of such material. The use of such materials accelerates biodiversity loss; any activity that creates environmental damage should be discouraged or banned.

Jesmond Harding is the author of The Irish Butterfly Book and runs the charity Butterfly Conservation Ireland.